Basic points

Basic points

GUIDELINES FOR THE SEMESTRAL AND FINAL PIN TESTS

Two structures marked with pins should be recognized on each of thirty stations.

There are 60 seconds of time per station.
It is not allowed to touch, move or rotate specimens.
The maximum score for one pin is 2 points.

Examples:
left superior thyroid a2p.
right superior thyroid a1p.
superior thyroid a1p

thyroid a 0p.
left 0p
 
Attention! Recognition of single structure in the way suggesting that the structure is paired or multiple = 0p.
Example: right trachea, left falx cerebri, superior tentorium cerebelli

On the final examination you need 76 points to pass.
First 20 pins are so called basic points, it means the basic anatomical structures which should be know to every MD.
These points will be scored 2 or 0 points only!

Example: pin shows the left common carotid a

  • left common carotid a 2p.
    • right common carotid a 0p

    • common carotid a 0p.

    • carotid a 0p.

    • carotid0p

You can make only two mistakes in the basic points section! In order  to pass, you need at least 36 points from this section.

BASIC POINTS
SEMESTRAL AND FINAL PIN TESTS
OSTEOLOGY AND ARTHROLOGY

When the pin indicates a bone, you have to write the name of the bone and the side
 
Since the clinical practice often requires more detailed knowledge about some structures, in cases listed below precise recognition of the structure is required.

CRANIUM

SKULL
Foramina and canals containing cranial nerves plus:

canalis caroticus

carotid canal

meatus acusticus externus

external acustic meatus

canalis nasolacrimalis

nasolacrimal canal

fossa hypophysialis

hypophyseal fossa

protuberantia occipitalis externa

external occipital protuberance

sulcus sinus sagittalis superioris

sulcus of superior sagittal sinus

sulcus sinus transversi

sulcus of transverse sinus

sulcus sinus sigmoidei

sulcus of sigmoid sinus

alveolus dentalis

dental alveolus

It is not required to name the bone, but the side has to be given.


OSSA CRANII

BONES OF THE SKULL

os frontale

frontal bone

os ethmoidale

ethmoid bone

os temporale

temporal bone

os sphenoidale

sphenoid bone

os parietale

parietal bone

os occipitale

occipital bone

maxilla

maxilla

os zygomaticum

zygomatic bone

os palatinum

palatine bone

os nasale

nasal bone

mandibula

mandible

 


COLUMNA VERTEBRALIS

VERTEBRAL COLUMN

 

part of vertebra (body, arch, spinous process) and its name (atlas, axis, prominens), and part of the vertebral column (e.g. spinous process of cervical vertebra)

dens axis

dens of axis (odontoid process)

os sacrum

sacrum

os coccygis

coccyx

promontorium

promontory

discus intervertebralis

intervertebral disc

 


THORAX

THORAX

costa

rib + side

costa prima

first rib

sternum

sternum

 

EXTREMITAS SUPERIOR

UPPER EXTREMITY

scapula: angulus inf., cavitas glenoidalis

scapula: inferior angle, glenoid cavity

clavicula

clavicle

humerus: caput, collum chirurgicum, epicondyli

humerus: head, surgical neck, epicondyli

radius

radius

ulna

ulna

ossa carpi

carpal bones (without side when separate)

ossa metacarpi

metacarpal bones (without side and number when separate)

phalanges

phalanges (without side and number when separate + distal phalanx))

 

EXTREMITAS INFERIOR

LOWER EXTREMITY

os coxae: crista iliaca, fossa iliaca, acetabulum, os pubis, tuber ischiadicum

hip bone: iliac crest, iliac fossa, acetabulum, pubis, ischial tuberosity

femur: caput, collum, trochanter maior, condylus medialis et lateralis

femur: head, neck, greater trochanter, medial and lateral condyle

patella

patella (no side when separate)

tibia: malleolus medialis

tibia: medial malleolus

fibula: malleolus lateralis

fibula: lateral malleolus

ossa tarsi

tarsal bones (without side when separate)

ossa metatarsi

metatarsal bone (without side when separate)

phalanges

phalanges (see upper extremity)

 


SYSTEMA NERVOSUM CENTRALE

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM

a. basillaris

basilar a

a. carotis interna

internal carotid a

medulla oblongata

medulla oblongata

pyramis medullae oblongatae

pyramid of medulla oblongata

pons

pons

radix n. trigemini

root of trigeminal n

ventriculus IV

fourth ventricle

vermis cerebelli

vermis of cerebellum

hemispherium cerebelli

cerebellar hemisphere

tonsilla cerebelli

cerebellar tonsil

mesencephalon

mesencephalon (midbrain)

aquaeductus mesencephali

cerebral aqueduct

crus cerebri

cerebral crus

thalamus

thalamus

corpus pineale

pineal body

ventriculus tertius

third ventricle

corpus mamillare

mamillary body

chiasma opticum

optic chiasm

nucleus caudatus

caudate nucleus

nucleus lentiformis

lentifom nucleus

capsula interna

internal capsule

ventriculus lateralis

lateral ventricle

plexus choroideus

choroids plexus

hippocampus

hippocampus

septum pellucidum

septum pellucidum

corpus callosum

corpus callosum

insula

insula

lobus temporalis

temporal lobe

lobus frontalis

frontal lobe

lobus occipitalis

occipital lobe

lobus parietalis

parietal lobe

sulcus lateralis

lateral sulcus

sulcus centralis

central sulcus

fissura longitudinalis cerebri

longitudinal fissure

tractus olfactorius

olfactory tract

bulbus olfactorius

olfactory bulb

medulla spinalis

spinal cord

  COLLUM

NECK

m. sternocleidomastoideus

sternocleidomastoid m

a. carotis communis

common carotid a

a. carotis interna

internal carotid a

a. carotis externa

external carotid a

v. iugularis interna et externa

internal and external jugular v

trachea

trachea

glandula thyroidea

thyroid gland

os hyoideum

hyoid bone

prominentia laryngis

laryngeal prominence

epiglottis

epiglottis

plica vocalis

vocal fold

cartilago thyroidea

thyroid cartilage

m. digastricus

digastric m

n. hypoglossus

hypoglossal n

glandula submandibularis

submandibular gland

a. subclavia

subclavian a

v. subclavia

subclavian v

plexus brachialis

brachial plexus

n. vagus

vagus n

n. phrenicus

phrenic n

m. scalenus ant.

scalenus anterior m

 


CAPUT

HEAD

a. facialis

facial a

glandula parotis

parotid gland

labium superius

upper lip

labium inferius

lower lip

rima oris

mouth

palpebra sup.

upper eyelid

palpebra inf.

lower eyelid

nasus externus

external nose

mentum

mentum

m. masseter

masseter m

m. temporalis

temporalis m

gingiva

gum

lingua

tongue

palatum durum

hard palate

palatum molle

soft palate

uvula

uvula

tonsilla palatina

palatine tonsil

tonsilla pharyngea

pharyngeal tonsil

ostium pharyngeum tubae auditive

pharyngeal orifice of the auditory tube

sinus maxillaris

maxillary sinus

sinus frontalis

frontal sinus

sinus sphenoidalis

sphenoid sinus

concha nasalis inf.

inferior nasal concha

concha nasalis media

middle nasal concha

ganglion trigeminale

trigeminal ganglion

n. alveolaris inf.

inferior alveolar n

n. lingualis

lingual n

a. maxillaries

maxillary a

a. temporalis spf.

superficial temporal a

falx cerebri

cerebral falx

tentorium cerebelli

tentorium of cerebellum

sinus sagittalis sup.

superior sagittal sinus

sinus transversus

transverse sinus

sinus sigmoideus

sigmoid sinus

n. opticus

optic n

bulbus oculi

eyeball

cavum tympani

tympanic cavity

auris interna

inner ear

 

THORAX

THORAX

a. axillaris

axillary a

m. pectoralis maior

pectoralis major m

m. latissimus dorsi

latissimus dorsi m

n. ulnaris

ulnar n

n. medianus

median n

n.musculocutaneus

musculocutaneous n

n. radialis

radial n

n. axillaris

axillary n

m. intercostalis ext.

external intercostal m

m. intercostalis int.

internal intercostal m

a. thoracica interna

internal thoracic a

n. intercostalis

intercostal n

pleura parietalis

parietal pleura

truncus sympathicus

sympathetic trunk

esophagus

esophagus

trachea

trachea

n. vagus

vagus n

n. phrenicus

phrenic n

v. brachiocephalica

brachiocephalic v

v. cava sup.

superior vena cava

v. cava inf.

inferior vena cava

v. azygos

azygos v

ductus thoracicus

thoracic duct

aorta ascendens

ascending aorta

arcus aortae

arch of the aorta, aortic arch

truncus brachiocephalicus

brachiocephalic trunk

a. carotis communis dx. et sin.

left and right common carotid aa

a. subclavia sin et dx.

left and right subclavian aa

aorta descendens

descending aorta

truncus pulmonalis

pulmonary trunk

a. pulmonalis

pulmonary a

bronchus principalis

main bronchus

vena pulmonalis sup.

superior pulmonary v

vena pulmonalis inf.

inferior pulmonary v

apex pulmonis

apex of the lung

lobus superior pulmonis

superior pulmonary lobe, superior lobe of the lung

lobus medius pulmonis dx.

middle lobe of the right lung

lobus inferior pulmonis

inferior pulmonary lobe, inferior lobe of the lung

apex cordis

apex of the heart

atrium sin.

left atrium

auricula sin.

left auricle

atrium dx.

right atrium

auricula dx.

right auricle

m. papillaris

papillary m

valva aortae

aortic valve, valve of the aorta

valva trunci pulmonalis

pulmonary valve, valve of the pulmonary trunk

valva bicuspidalis

bicuspid valve, mitral valve, left atrioventricular valve

valva tricuspidalis

tricuspid valve, right atrioventricular valve

septum interventriculare

interventricular septum

fossa ovalis

oval fossa, fossa ovalis

ventriculus sinister

left ventricle

ventriculus dexter

right ventricle

a. coronaria sin.

left coronary a

a. coronaria dx.

right coronary a

sinus coronarius

coronary sinus

diaphragma

diaphragm

ABDOMEN

ABDOMEN

funiculus spermaticus

spermatic cord

umbilicus

umbilicus

m. rectus abdominis

rectus abdominis m

linea alba

linea alba

lig. inguinale

inguinal lig

m. obl. ext. abdominis

external oblique abdominis m

peritoneum parietale

parietal peritoneum

omentum maius

greater omentum

ventriculus

stomach

cardia ventriculi

cardiac part of the stomach, cardia

fundus ventriculi

fundus of the stomach

curvatura ventriculi minor et maior

lesser and greater curvature of the stomach

pylorus

pylorus

bulbus duodeni

ampulla of the duodenum, superior part of the duodenum, duodenal ampulla

duodenum

duodenum

mesenterium

mesentery

ieiunum

jejunum

ileum

ileum

caecum

caecum

appendix vermiformis

vermiform appendix

colon ascendens

ascending colon

colon transversum

transverse colon

colon descsendens

descending colon

colon sigmoideum

sigmoid colon

rectum

rectum

lien

spleen

pancreas

pancreas

lig hepatoduodenale

hepatoduodenal lig

ductus choledochus

common bile duct

vena portae

hepatic portal v

lobus sinister

left lobe of the liver

lobus dexter

right lobe of the liver

lobus caudatus

caudate lobe of the liver

lobus quadratus

quadrate lobe of the liver

ligamentum teres hepatis

round ligament of the liver

aorta

aorta

v. cava inf.

inferior vena cava

truncus celiacus

coeliac trunk

a et v. mesenterica sup.

superior mesenteric a and v

a. et v. mesenterica inf

inferior mesenteric a and v

vesica fellea

gallbladder

 

SPATIUM RETROPERITONEALE ET ORGANA UROGENITALIA

RETROPERITONEAL SPACE AND UROGENITAL ORGANS

m. psoas maior

psoas major m

m. iliacus

iliacus m

n. femoralis

femoral n

n. obturatorius

obturator n

a. iliaca communis, externa et interna

common, external and internal iliac aa

v. iliaca communis, externa et interna

common, external and internal iliac vv

a. v. renalis

renal a and v

ren

kidney

pelvis renalis

renal pelvis

glandula suprarenalis

suprarenal gland, adrenal gland

ureter

ureter

vesica urinaria

urinary bladder

truncus symphaticus

sympathetic trunk

nodi lymphatici lumbales

lumbar lymph nodes

excavatio rectouterina

recto-uterine excavation, recto-uterine pouch

uterus

uterus

vagina

vagina

tuba uterina

uterine tube, Fallopian tube,

ovarium

ovarium

lig. latum uteri

broad ligament of uterus

testis

testis, testicle

epididymis

epididymis

ductus deferens

deferent duct, ductus deferens

prostata

prostate

urethra masculina

male urethra

corpus cavernosum penis

cavernous body of the penis

glans penis

glans penis, glans of the penis

scrotum

scrotum

urethra feminina

female urethra

labium maius pudendi

greater pudendal lip

labium minus pudendi

lesser pudendal lip

clitoris

clitoris

anus

anus

m. levator ani

levator ani m

 

MEMBRUM SUPERIUS

UPPER LIMB

m. erector spinae

erector spinae m

m. latissimus dorsi

latissimus dorsi m

m. trapezius

trapezius m

m. serratus ant.

anterior serratus m

m. subscapularis

subscapular m

m. infraspinatus

infraspinatus m

m. supraspinatus

supraspinatus m

m. deltoideus

deltoid m

m. biceps brachii

biceps brachii m, biceps of the arm

m. triceps brachii

triceps brachii m, triceps of the arm

m. brachioradialis

brachioradialis m

m. flexor carpi radialis

flexor carpi radialis m, radial flexor of the wrist

m. flexor carpi ulnaris

flexor carpi ulnaris m, ulnar flexor of the wrist

m. flexor digitorum spf.

flexor digitorum superficialis m, superficial flexor of the fingers

m. flexor digitorum prof.

flexor digitorum profundus m, deep flexor of the fingers

m. extensor digitorum

extensor digitorum m, extensor of the fingers

thenar

thenar eminence

hypothenar

hypothenar eminence

a. axillaris

axillary a

a. brachialis

brachial a

a. radialis

radial a

a. ulnaris

ulnar a

v. basilica

basilic v

v. cephalica

cephalic v

n. medianus

median n

n. radialis

radial n

n. ulnaris

ulnar n

n. musculocutaneus

musculocutaneous n

unguis

nail

 

MEMBRUM INFERIUS

LOWER LIMB

m. iliacus

iliacus m

m. psoas maior

psoas major m

m. gluteus maximus

gluteus maximus m

m. gluteus medius

gluteus medius m

m. gluteus minimus

gluteus minimus m

m. quadriceps femoris

quadriceps femoris m, quadriceps of the tigh

m. sartorius

sartorius m

m.adductor magnus

adductor magnus m

tractus iliotibialis

iliotibial tract

m. gastrocnemius

gastrocnemius m

m. soleus

soleus m

tendo Achillis

calcaneal tendon

m. tibialis ant

anterior tibialis m

a. v. femoralis

femoral a and v

a. v. poplitea

popliteal a and v

a. tibialis

tibial a

v. saphena magna

great (long) saphenous v

n. ischiadicus

sciatic n

n. femoralis

femoral n

n. tibialis

tibial n

n. peroneus communis

common peroneal n

lig. patellae

patellar lig

lig. cruciatum genus

cruciate lig of the knee

unguis

nail

Basic structure may be marked also in the further (non-basic) part of the exam and in such a case it should be described in a more detailed form to gather the maximal score. For example, if the pin is inserted in the left ulna the name of the specific region of the bone should be given, eg. left ulnar tuberosity.

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